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  1. @c -*-texinfo-*-
  2. @node License
  3. @appendix GNU Free Documentation License
  4. @center Version 1.1, March 2000
  5. @display
  6. Copyright (C) 2000, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  7. 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
  8. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
  9. of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  10. @end display
  11. @sp 1
  12. @enumerate 0
  13. @item
  14. PREAMBLE
  15. The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
  16. written document ``free'' in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
  17. the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
  18. modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily,
  19. this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
  20. credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
  21. modifications made by others.
  22. This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative
  23. works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
  24. complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
  25. license designed for free software.
  26. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
  27. software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
  28. program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
  29. software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
  30. it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
  31. whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
  32. principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
  33. @sp 1
  34. @item
  35. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
  36. This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
  37. notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
  38. under the terms of this License. The ``Document'', below, refers to any
  39. such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
  40. addressed as ``you.''
  41. A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
  42. Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
  43. modifications and/or translated into another language.
  44. A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
  45. the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
  46. publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
  47. (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
  48. within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a
  49. textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
  50. mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
  51. connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
  52. commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
  53. them.
  54. The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
  55. are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
  56. that says that the Document is released under this License.
  57. The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
  58. as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
  59. the Document is released under this License.
  60. A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
  61. represented in a format whose specification is available to the
  62. general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
  63. straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
  64. pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
  65. drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
  66. for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
  67. to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
  68. format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage
  69. subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is
  70. not ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque.''
  71. Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
  72. ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
  73. or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
  74. HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include
  75. PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only
  76. by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
  77. processing tools are not generally available, and the
  78. machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
  79. purposes only.
  80. The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
  81. plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
  82. this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
  83. formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title Page'' means
  84. the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
  85. preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
  86. @sp 1
  87. @item
  88. VERBATIM COPYING
  89. You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
  90. commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
  91. copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
  92. to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
  93. conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
  94. technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
  95. copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
  96. compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
  97. number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
  98. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
  99. you may publicly display copies.
  100. @sp 1
  101. @item
  102. COPYING IN QUANTITY
  103. If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
  104. and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose
  105. the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
  106. Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
  107. the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
  108. you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
  109. the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
  110. visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
  111. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
  112. the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
  113. as verbatim copying in other respects.
  114. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
  115. legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
  116. reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
  117. pages.
  118. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
  119. more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
  120. copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
  121. a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
  122. Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
  123. general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
  124. charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter
  125. option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
  126. distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
  127. Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location
  128. until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque
  129. copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to
  130. the public.
  131. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
  132. Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
  133. them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
  134. @sp 1
  135. @item
  136. MODIFICATIONS
  137. You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
  138. the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
  139. the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
  140. Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
  141. and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
  142. of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
  143. A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
  144. from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
  145. (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
  146. of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
  147. if the original publisher of that version gives permission.@*
  148. B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
  149. responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
  150. Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
  151. Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).@*
  152. C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
  153. Modified Version, as the publisher.@*
  154. D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.@*
  155. E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
  156. adjacent to the other copyright notices.@*
  157. F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
  158. giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
  159. terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.@*
  160. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
  161. and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.@*
  162. H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.@*
  163. I. Preserve the section entitled ``History'', and its title, and add to
  164. it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
  165. publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
  166. there is no section entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
  167. stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
  168. given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
  169. Version as stated in the previous sentence.@*
  170. J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
  171. public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
  172. the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
  173. it was based on. These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
  174. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
  175. least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
  176. publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.@*
  177. K. In any section entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedications'',
  178. preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
  179. substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
  180. and/or dedications given therein.@*
  181. L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
  182. unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
  183. or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.@*
  184. M. Delete any section entitled ``Endorsements.'' Such a section
  185. may not be included in the Modified Version.@*
  186. N. Do not retitle any existing section as ``Endorsements''
  187. or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.@*
  188. @sp 1
  189. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
  190. appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
  191. copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
  192. of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
  193. list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
  194. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
  195. You may add a section entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it contains
  196. nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
  197. parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
  198. been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
  199. standard.
  200. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
  201. passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
  202. of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
  203. Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
  204. through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
  205. includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
  206. by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
  207. you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
  208. permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
  209. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
  210. give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
  211. imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
  212. @sp 1
  213. @item
  214. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
  215. You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
  216. License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
  217. versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
  218. Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
  219. list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
  220. license notice.
  221. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
  222. multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
  223. copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
  224. different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
  225. adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
  226. author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
  227. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
  228. Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
  229. In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled ``History''
  230. in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
  231. ``History''; likewise combine any sections entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
  232. and any sections entitled ``Dedications.'' You must delete all sections
  233. entitled ``Endorsements.''
  234. @sp 1
  235. @item
  236. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
  237. You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
  238. released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
  239. License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
  240. the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
  241. verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
  242. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
  243. it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
  244. License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
  245. other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
  246. @sp 1
  247. @item
  248. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
  249. A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
  250. and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
  251. distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version
  252. of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
  253. compilation. Such a compilation is called an ``aggregate'', and this
  254. License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
  255. with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they
  256. are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
  257. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
  258. copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter
  259. of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
  260. covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate.
  261. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
  262. @sp 1
  263. @item
  264. TRANSLATION
  265. Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
  266. distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
  267. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
  268. permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
  269. translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
  270. original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
  271. translation of this License provided that you also include the
  272. original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
  273. between the translation and the original English version of this
  274. License, the original English version will prevail.
  275. @sp 1
  276. @item
  277. TERMINATION
  278. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
  279. as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
  280. copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
  281. automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
  282. parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
  283. License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
  284. parties remain in full compliance.
  285. @sp 1
  286. @item
  287. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
  288. The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
  289. of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
  290. versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
  291. differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
  292. http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
  293. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
  294. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
  295. License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
  296. following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
  297. of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
  298. Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
  299. number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
  300. as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
  301. @end enumerate
  302. @unnumberedsec ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
  303. To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
  304. the License in the document and put the following copyright and
  305. license notices just after the title page:
  306. @smallexample
  307. @group
  308. Copyright (C) @var{year} @var{your name}.
  309. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  310. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
  311. or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  312. with the Invariant Sections being @var{list their titles}, with the
  313. Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}, and with the Back-Cover Texts being @var{list}.
  314. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
  315. Free Documentation License."
  316. @end group
  317. @end smallexample
  318. If you have no Invariant Sections, write ``with no Invariant Sections''
  319. instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no
  320. Front-Cover Texts, write ``no Front-Cover Texts'' instead of
  321. ``Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}''; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.
  322. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
  323. recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
  324. free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
  325. to permit their use in free software.