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  1. @c -*-texinfo-*-
  2. @node License
  3. @appendix The GNU Free Documentation License.
  4. @center Version 1.2, November 2002
  5. @c This file is intended to be included within another document,
  6. @c hence no sectioning command or @node.
  7. @display
  8. Copyright @copyright{} 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  9. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
  10. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
  11. of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  12. @end display
  13. @enumerate 0
  14. @item
  16. The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
  17. functional and useful document @dfn{free} in the sense of freedom: to
  18. assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
  19. with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
  20. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
  21. to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
  22. for modifications made by others.
  23. This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative
  24. works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
  25. complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
  26. license designed for free software.
  27. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
  28. software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
  29. program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
  30. software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
  31. it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
  32. whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
  33. principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
  34. @item
  36. This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
  37. contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
  38. distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
  39. world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
  40. work under the conditions stated herein. The ``Document'', below,
  41. refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
  42. licensee, and is addressed as ``you''. You accept the license if you
  43. copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
  44. under copyright law.
  45. A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
  46. Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
  47. modifications and/or translated into another language.
  48. A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section
  49. of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
  50. publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
  51. subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
  52. directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in
  53. part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
  54. any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
  55. connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
  56. commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
  57. them.
  58. The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
  59. are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
  60. that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
  61. section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
  62. allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
  63. Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
  64. Sections then there are none.
  65. The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
  66. as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
  67. the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
  68. be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
  69. A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
  70. represented in a format whose specification is available to the
  71. general public, that is suitable for revising the document
  72. straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
  73. pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
  74. drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
  75. for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
  76. to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
  77. format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
  78. or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
  79. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
  80. of text. A copy that is not ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque''.
  81. Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
  82. @sc{ascii} without markup, Texinfo input format, La@TeX{} input
  83. format, @acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} using a publicly available
  84. @acronym{DTD}, and standard-conforming simple @acronym{HTML},
  85. PostScript or @acronym{PDF} designed for human modification. Examples
  86. of transparent image formats include @acronym{PNG}, @acronym{XCF} and
  87. @acronym{JPG}. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be
  88. read and edited only by proprietary word processors, @acronym{SGML} or
  89. @acronym{XML} for which the @acronym{DTD} and/or processing tools are
  90. not generally available, and the machine-generated @acronym{HTML},
  91. PostScript or @acronym{PDF} produced by some word processors for
  92. output purposes only.
  93. The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
  94. plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
  95. this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
  96. formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title Page'' means
  97. the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
  98. preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
  99. A section ``Entitled XYZ'' means a named subunit of the Document whose
  100. title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
  101. text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
  102. specific section name mentioned below, such as ``Acknowledgements'',
  103. ``Dedications'', ``Endorsements'', or ``History''.) To ``Preserve the Title''
  104. of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
  105. section ``Entitled XYZ'' according to this definition.
  106. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
  107. states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
  108. Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
  109. License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
  110. implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
  111. no effect on the meaning of this License.
  112. @item
  114. You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
  115. commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
  116. copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
  117. to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
  118. conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
  119. technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
  120. copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
  121. compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
  122. number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
  123. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
  124. you may publicly display copies.
  125. @item
  127. If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
  128. printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
  129. Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
  130. copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
  131. Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
  132. the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
  133. you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
  134. the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
  135. visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
  136. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
  137. the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
  138. as verbatim copying in other respects.
  139. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
  140. legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
  141. reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
  142. pages.
  143. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
  144. more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
  145. copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
  146. a computer-network location from which the general network-using
  147. public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
  148. a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
  149. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
  150. when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
  151. that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
  152. location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
  153. Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
  154. edition to the public.
  155. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
  156. Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
  157. them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
  158. @item
  160. You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
  161. the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
  162. the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
  163. Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
  164. and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
  165. of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
  166. @enumerate A
  167. @item
  168. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
  169. from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
  170. (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
  171. of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
  172. if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  173. @item
  174. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
  175. responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
  176. Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
  177. Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
  178. unless they release you from this requirement.
  179. @item
  180. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
  181. Modified Version, as the publisher.
  182. @item
  183. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  184. @item
  185. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
  186. adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  187. @item
  188. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
  189. giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
  190. terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  191. @item
  192. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
  193. and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  194. @item
  195. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  196. @item
  197. Preserve the section Entitled ``History'', Preserve its Title, and add
  198. to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
  199. publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
  200. there is no section Entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
  201. stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
  202. given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
  203. Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  204. @item
  205. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
  206. public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
  207. the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
  208. it was based on. These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
  209. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
  210. least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
  211. publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  212. @item
  213. For any section Entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedications'', Preserve
  214. the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the
  215. substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
  216. dedications given therein.
  217. @item
  218. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
  219. unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
  220. or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  221. @item
  222. Delete any section Entitled ``Endorsements''. Such a section
  223. may not be included in the Modified Version.
  224. @item
  225. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ``Endorsements'' or
  226. to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  227. @item
  228. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
  229. @end enumerate
  230. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
  231. appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
  232. copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
  233. of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
  234. list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
  235. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
  236. You may add a section Entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it contains
  237. nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
  238. parties---for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
  239. been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
  240. standard.
  241. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
  242. passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
  243. of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
  244. Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
  245. through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
  246. includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
  247. by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
  248. you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
  249. permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
  250. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
  251. give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
  252. imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
  253. @item
  255. You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
  256. License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
  257. versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
  258. Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
  259. list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
  260. license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
  261. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
  262. multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
  263. copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
  264. different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
  265. adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
  266. author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
  267. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
  268. Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
  269. In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ``History''
  270. in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
  271. ``History''; likewise combine any sections Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
  272. and any sections Entitled ``Dedications''. You must delete all
  273. sections Entitled ``Endorsements.''
  274. @item
  276. You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
  277. released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
  278. License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
  279. the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
  280. verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
  281. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
  282. it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
  283. License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
  284. other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
  285. @item
  287. A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
  288. and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
  289. distribution medium, is called an ``aggregate'' if the copyright
  290. resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
  291. of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
  292. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
  293. apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
  294. derivative works of the Document.
  295. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
  296. copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
  297. the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
  298. covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
  299. electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
  300. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
  301. aggregate.
  302. @item
  304. Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
  305. distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
  306. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
  307. permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
  308. translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
  309. original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
  310. translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
  311. Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
  312. the original English version of this License and the original versions
  313. of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
  314. the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
  315. or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
  316. If a section in the Document is Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
  317. ``Dedications'', or ``History'', the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
  318. its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
  319. title.
  320. @item
  322. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
  323. as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
  324. copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
  325. automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
  326. parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
  327. License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
  328. parties remain in full compliance.
  329. @item
  331. The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
  332. of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
  333. versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
  334. differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
  335. @uref{}.
  336. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
  337. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
  338. License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
  339. following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
  340. of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
  341. Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
  342. number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
  343. as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
  344. @end enumerate
  345. @unnumberedsec ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
  346. To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
  347. the License in the document and put the following copyright and
  348. license notices just after the title page:
  349. @smallexample
  350. @group
  351. Copyright (C) @var{year} @var{your name}.
  352. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  353. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
  354. or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  355. with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
  356. Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  357. Free Documentation License''.
  358. @end group
  359. @end smallexample
  360. If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
  361. replace the ``with@dots{}Texts.'' line with this:
  362. @smallexample
  363. @group
  364. with the Invariant Sections being @var{list their titles}, with
  365. the Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}, and with the Back-Cover Texts
  366. being @var{list}.
  367. @end group
  368. @end smallexample
  369. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
  370. combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
  371. situation.
  372. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
  373. recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
  374. free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
  375. to permit their use in free software.
  376. @c Local Variables:
  377. @c ispell-local-pdict: "ispell-dict"
  378. @c End: